Here’s your chance to get your hands on some Velociraptor-themed goodies!
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Eventually, one simply has to make the pilgrimage. Frankly, I’m not sure how I managed to delay it for so long. For anyone with an interest in palaeontology - and especially for those with an interest in palaeoart - a visit to Crystal Palace Park is simply a must. More than that - it’s unavoidable. You will end up here, one day, staring up at Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins’ concrete monstrosities. Here is the Land Where Ugly Life-Sized Dinosaur Models Began. And it’s quite wonderful.
Most readers will be familiar with the backstory (and David’s done it before), so I’ll try and be brief. Crystal Palace Park in London is named after the eponymous building, which was bought up and rebuilt here following The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park in 1851. A series of landscaped gardens were created around the Palace, with the Dinosaur Park being one of these. The models were created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and his team, with the scientific advice of the brilliant anatomist and evil bastard Richard Owen. Among the creatures created were the famous Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, but also a whole host of non-dinosaurs, including Palaeozoic amphibians and reptiles, Cenozoic mammals and, of course, marine reptiles.
The models have survived more-or-less intact into the present today, which is utterly remarkable given how exposed they all are. Replacement parts have been created here and there, but these are, for the most part, the same bizarre beasties that our Victorian forebears gazed upon. These days, the models have become icons of scientific progress - that is, of how far we’ve progressed since the 19th century. Of course, given how little the earliest palaeontologists had to go on, it’s quite surprising that the sculpts make any sense at all. But they do make some sense.
For example, although aware of their reptilian character, Owen was clever enough to realise that the dinosaurs must have had upright limbs like modern mammals and birds. Today, the ‘elephantine lizards’ he helped shape look laughably inaccurate, their nose horns the best-known example of how a simple anatomical error can result in a problem so glaringly obvious when writ large. However, at the time - with no clue as to just how different from today’s animals a large ornithopod was - these were pretty sensible and solid attempts. (Apparently, Owen also knew that the nose horn might be a mistake - but as any palaeoartist today will tell you, a little conjecture is completely necessary.)
All that said, we can only wonder what might have happened if Waterhouse Hawkins had Gideon Mantell as his consultant, as was originally intended. Supposedly, Mantell had already figured out that the dinosaurs didn’t look quite as Owen envisaged, particularly when it came to their limbs and posture. Unfortunately, ill health meant that Mantell had to turn the job down.
Although the Iguanodon often get all the attention, the park’s gigantic Megalosaurus is perhaps its most impressive model of all. Resembling a hulking croco-bear with enormously powerful and muscular limbs, it’s a world away from the svelte biped we envisage nowadays. The shoulder hump is a particularly curious feature, and some have speculated that it might be the result of Owen being privy to material now referred to Becklespinax (the hump, in reality, being from vertebrae nearer the hips).
Seemingly as if to further accentuate this model’s hopeless inaccuracy in the face of modern science, the Megalosaurus has now sprouted some foliage, which hangs limply down from its mouth. Or maybe Ken Ham broke in and wedged it in there.
The Hylaeosaurus, with its slightly sprawling posture, is closer to just looking like an oversized lizard than the other dinosaurs. It sports a replacement fibreglass head which, unfortunately, is rather difficult to photograph (hence the above ‘rear end shot’). Given how ankylosaurs have suffered in palaeoart over the years, it’s probably fair to say that this model isn’t so different from depictions that appeared 100 years later.
Unknown to (or unnoticed by) many people, the models are actually grouped together according to the time period in which the animals lived. From one end of the lake to the other, they progress from the Permian, through the Mesozoic, and then on into the Cenozoic. This way, all the Jurassic marine reptiles are grouped together, but Mosasaurus is sequestered elsewhere. The plesiosaurs are recognisable, although their necks bend and twist in impossible ways, while the large ichthyosaurs lack dorsal fins and have newt-like tail tips. It’s tempting to think that the exposed scleral rings are just another unfortunate inaccuracy, but they may have been an intentional anatomy lesson; such an interpretation is given more credence by the exposed ‘pavement’ of bones in the flippers (as above).
Just up from the plesiosaurs are a pair of marvellous, fearsome-looking Steneosaurus. The animal was a marine crocodyliform, and is known from some excellently preserved fossils. As such, Owen’s interpretations aren’t a million miles away from the modern view, although they owe a lot to the living gharial. The above photo also depicts what appears to be a coot (Fulica altra) nest under construction, carefully watched over by a grimacing, serpentine plesiosaur.
Back down in the Permian, the star attractions may be smaller, but they’re no less strange for it. The mutant toads hanging around by the lake are in fact labyrinthodonts, which were imagined to be entirely tailless. Their appearance is fascinatingly bizarre, as if someone grafted the megalosaur’s head on to a frog. Weirder still are a group of shelled dicynodonts, which Owen imagined to be turtle-like (unfortunately, I didn’t manage to get a decent photo). From the Permian end of the lake, one has a marvellous ‘time tunnel’ view through to the dinosaurs at the far side, and the lush (if not entirely appropriate) greenery that’s grown up around the models in recent years lends a suitably primordial feel. Er, if you ignore all the flowers.
Beyond the end of the tunnel, adjacent the boating lake, are positioned a handful of different Cenozoic mammals. (Many more were planned for the park originally, but funding ran out - a shame, as the proposed Glyptodon would no doubt have looked fantastic.) A Megaloceros family provides a visually striking focal point, and - because the path wraps around them - it’s possible to view them from any number of different angles, and take in all of the wonderful details. In the below photo, a pair of American tourists (I’ll get to them in a minute) are carefully examining the mighty Megaloceros male.
Around the corner we have Megatherium, another impressively large creation. The tree it’s hugging, in classic Megatherium/hippy fashion, is in fact the original Victorian specimen (now rather dead). According to signage in the park, the tree once grew enough to knock the sloth’s arm off, and it now bears a replacement limb. It’s difficult to photograph the Megatherium’s face, but it really is quite adorable, as I’m quire sure the real animal was. I mean, they’re just great big mounds of cuddly fuzz, if you think about it…and ignore the bloody great claws.
Speaking of adorable mammals…I was lucky enough to share my visit with none other than Chris DiPiazza of Jersey Boys Hunt Dinosaurs fame, along with Niroot and our mutual friends Nancy and Huseyin. Much joyous geekery ensued, as I’m sure you can imagine, and I’d like to sincerely thank one and all for the day. Cheers!
Mirror shades. Just typical. And finally…various (generally excellent) signs around the park show ‘contemporary’ (i.e. modern) depictions of the prehistoric creatures. Most of these aren’t too bad, but the ‘modern’ pterosaur is proper horrorshow. Check it out, unless you’re a pterosaur expert, in which case I’d advise closing this page and backing away from your PC at once. ‘Til next time!
The greatest (and most complete) set of photographs from a place that, although I never have been, holds such magic for me.
Glyptodonts and Armadillos in AMNH.
The giant one is a Panochthus, a badly photographed skull of Glyptotherium (in second image), the small Propalaehoplophorus and a modern armadillo, the six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus).
Gliptodontes y Armadillos en el AMNH.
El gigante es un Panochthus, luego esta un cráneo mal fotografiado de Glyptotherium (en la segunda imagen), el pequeño Propalaehoplophorus y un armadillo moderno, el tatú peludo (Euphractus sexcinctus).
Flock of Ancient ‘Butterfly-Headed’ Flying Reptiles Discovered
by Tia Ghose
An ancient flying reptile with a bizarre, butterflylike head has been unearthed in Brazil.
The new-found pterosaur species, Caiuajara dobruskii, lived about 80 million years ago in an ancient desert oasis. The beast sported a strange bony crest on its head that looked like the wings of a butterfly, and had the wingspan needed to take flight at a very young age.
Hundreds of fossils from the reptile were unearthed in a single bone bed, providing the strongest evidence yet that the flying reptiles were social animals, said study co-author Alexander Kellner, a paleontologist at the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in Brazil…
(read more: Live Science)
illustration by Maurilio Oliveira/Museu Nacional-UFR; photos: Manzig et al, PLOS ONE 2014
Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton in the AMNH in New York.
And also the skulls of a T-rex and an Albertosaurus, another tyrannosaurid.
As you probably realize, this is next to the Allosaurus skeleton and in front of the Apatosaurus one.
Un Tiranosaurio Rex en el Museo Americano de Historia Natural.
Con él los cráneos de otro T-rex y un Albertosaurus, otro tiranosáurido.
Como quizás hayan notado, esta exhibición está al lado del esqueleto de Allosaurus y en frente del Apatosaurus.
I WAS LOOKING UP PICTURES OF CASSOWARIES AND
make eye contact and i will disembowel you
A huge Apatosaurus skeleton and also some sauropods skulls in the AMNH in New York.
Photos by me
Un gran esqueleto de Apatosaurio y algunos cráneos de saurópodos en Museo Americano de Historia Natural en Nueva York.
Megamastax, the first vertebrate apex predator. By Brian Choo for nature.com
"Over a shallow Silurian seabed off the South China microcontinent, a spawning aggregation of jawless galeaspids (Dunyu longiferus) is rudely interrupted by the jaws of a 4-foot long Megamastax. Small acanthodians and the antiarch Silurolepis platydorsalis swim in the background. For the first time in Earth’s history, a vertebrate is at the top of the food chain.” Keep reading
Cotylorhynchus romeri by Maxim Sinitsa
Changyuraptor yangi is a newly-described microraptorine dromaeosaur dinosaur from the early Cretaceous (Yixian formation) of Liaoning, China.
The animal would have been around 4 feet long in life, and its fossil shows that it was covered in feathers — including, as in its smaller cousin Microraptor, a pair of “leg wings” represented by long paired pennaceous feathers on the metatarsals and tibiotarsus. One of Changyuraptor's most unique features is its voluminous tail feathers, and these feathers constitute the longest of any known non-avian dinosaur, with the most distal retrices reaching around 30 cm in length.
Changyuraptor is also by far the largest “four-winged” dinosaur known, and while this might not be as big of a deal as it sounds (given that there aren’t very many “four-winged” dinosaurs), it does show that small size wasn’t necessarily the gatekeeper to certain volant adaptations. I personally doubt that this animal was doing anything approaching powered flight, but the long tail feathers and multiple sets of long, well-developed lifting surfaces may have been a boon to gliding and controlled descent. The exceptionally long tail feathers therefore might have been used as a sort of “pitch control” device, wherein a large, relatively heavy animal would have needed especially fine-tuned control over rapid falls onto prey or in safe landings from higher ground. As Buzz Lightyear would say, “This isn’t flying, it’s falling with style!”
Gouache paint on A3-size hot-pressed illustration board, approx. 5-6 hours.
Gang Han et al. 2014. “A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance”. Nature Communications. 5: 4382.
Earth’s first life forms survived a massive bombardment by asteroids that completely remade the planet’s surface around 4.5 billion years ago. Few if any areas escaped impacts powerful enough to force molten magma onto the surface. That’s according to a new reconstruction by Simone Marchi and co-authors, which would explain the lack of rocks on Earth older than the Hadean period.
Image: An artist’s imagined view of the early Earth, showing a surface pocked by asteroid impacts, resulting in extrusion of magma.
Here’s the artist’s page: Simone Marchi, and two more pictures:
Science fans and book lovers! I’ve got a special challenge for you…
I’m teaming up with the amazing book project Call me Ishmael for the first of what we’re calling an “All Call Challenge"…
What does that mean? We want YOU to tell a story of a book that changed the way you look at the natural world. You can hear the full details on the challenge, plus hear a book-themed interview with me by clicking here, or by checking out the video below:
I’m betting you smart people are full of amazing stories about amazing stories. Remember, if you do submit your story to Call Me ishmael, make sure to say that you’re answering the It’s Okay To Be Smart “All Call” challenge! I’m willing to bet a few more of your favorite YouTubers will be issuing “All Calls” in the near future, too.
A few of you figured it out already, but I answered my own challenge yesterday, in this “anonymous” Call Me Ishmael submission:
Help us spread the word, stay curious, and keep on reading!
Edmontosaurus skeletons in the AMNH.
And also the Charles R. Knight painting, made at a time when it was thought that this was a Trachodon. They later renamed it Anatosaurus, them Anatotitan and know is know that is just a species of the Edmontosaurus.
Photos by me
Esqueletos de Edmontosaurus en el AMNH.
Con ellos el cuadro de Charles R. Knight, quién lo hizo en un tiempo en que estos animales se llamaban Trachodon. Luego se los llamó Anatosaurus, después Anatotitan y ahora se sabe que no es más que una especie de Edmontosaurus.
Yo tomé las fotos.
100% scientifically accurate paleoart of the recently described dinosaur kulindadromeus zabaikalicus
Kulindadromeus is all over Tumblr, I assume that all of you know about the discovery and how important it is and have seen Andrey Atuchin’s wonderful illustration a hundred times already. There’s no need for me to post that, but we all need to marvel at the greatness of dimetrodone's take on the subject.